Another flashy music video on YouTube, and this one’s been viewed hundreds of millions of times since its July launch. The viral phenomenon “Gangnam Style” by Korean pop star PSY has lots of flash, but surprisingly, only one instance of exceeding seizure safety guidelines.
In the problem sequence, images of PSY rapidly alternate with images of another Korean performer, Kim Hyun-a. Alternating between the bright, contrasting images at a rate of 3 times per second or more creates a flash effect capable of inducing a seizure.
The wildly popular“Gangnam Style” video was followed several weeks later by the release of a female version,“Oppa Is Just My Style,” that includes more sequences with Ms. Hyun-a. The second video has considerably more flashing sequences that could easily trigger seizures in individuals with photosensitive epilepsy.
In the upper left of the screen grab at left (click on it to enlarge) you can see a dance sequence that is being analyzed for seizure safety. The accompanying graph indicates levels of flash (luminance) that fail to meet photosensitive epilepsy safety guidelines. Visible at the bottom of the screen are the individual frames that make up the moving sequence. The flashing effect is created by the alternating frames of bright and dark images.
How come you haven’t heard about seizures from the #1 YouTube video?
- Viewers may not maximize the video to fill the computer screen. Therefore the image is too small to affect enough neurons to cause seizures.
- Viewers are not staring continually at the screen—maybe they’re laughing, doing the horse dance, or straining to figure out the lyrics
- The seizures are happening but without many outward signs, so they are not recognized as seizures.
“Kanye West loves strobe lights,” cooed the Huffington Post the other day, reporting the release of the performer’s most recent flash-filled music video. “…the Chicago rapper…seemingly earns an epilepsy warning with every new project. His new video for the not-so-new song ‘Lost in the World’ certainly doesn’t deviate from the pattern.”
Apparently he loves strobe lights so much that–despite being informed, two music video releases ago–that his flashing visuals provoke seizures in some viewers, he is determined to use these effects anyway. Wow, you have to really respect a man who refuses to let the health of the viewing public get in the way of his artistic freedom. The Huff Post article continues in the same admiring tone: “…the rapper is known for his emphasis on quality videos (his half-hour ‘Runaway’ short film was perhaps the biggest statement of the rapper’s visual aesthetic).”
The rapper’s acknowledgement of a potential seizure problem has followed a strange path. In February 2011, accounts of seizures triggered by West’s “All of the Lights” video spurred UK-based Epilepsy Action to request that the video be removed from YouTube. In response, the video was temporarily removed and a warning was placed at the beginning:
This video has been identified by Epilepsy Action to potentially trigger seizures for people with photosensitive epilepsy. Viewer discretion is advised.
A year later the “N—-s in Paris” video was released with this same warning, although Epilepsy Action was never contacted about it.
And now there’s a warning at the beginning of the “Lost in the World” video that doesn’t even explain why the warning is important for viewers. All it says is:
Warning: Strobe effects are used in this video.
I expect Epilepsy Action will probably make a statement regarding the risks of viewing this latest release, and perhaps take issue with the less-than-explicit warning that was provided. How about some advocacy in the US? It’s time to confront the very preventable public health problem created by strobe effects in entertainment media.
Do Jay Z and Kanye West deserve kudos for placing a seizure warning at the start of their highly anticipated, flash-filled music video “N**gas in Paris”? Does a warning make it OK to produce videos known to place people at risk for seizures?
“Paris” is by far the most seizure-provoking piece of video I’ve ever tested with the Harding Flash and Pattern Analyzer. After just a few seconds it had already exceeded photosensitive seizure safety guidelines, and multiple violations continued throughout.
Because it contains a seizure warning, which was posted before anyone could complain about the seizure effects, somebody decided these guys have become considerate of those with photosensitive epilepsy. The entertainment press would like you to believe that West, who directed the video, is now sensitive to the issue of seizure-inducing images and may even have saved lives by placing a warning before the new Paris video. What a public relations coup!
“…a simple warning that Jay Z and Kanye West included at the top of their “N**gas in Paris” video may have been the difference between life and death for some of their seizure-prone fans …this according to multiple epilepsy organizations. The concern is obvious … since the video is filled with strobe lights and quick edits,” fawns TMZ.
A story headline at complex.com based on the TMZ piece reads, “CURE & Epilepsy Therapy Project Applaud Kanye West & Jay-Z for Warning in ‘Paris’ Video.” The reporter got statements from both of these highly respected US epilepsy advocacy organizations, praising the artists’ sensitivity to the epilepsy community.
Last year, when the UK’s Epilepsy Action objected to West’s very flashy “All of the Lights,” the video was temporarily removed from the Internet and subsequently reinstated with a seizure warning at the beginnning. The warning credited Epilepsy Action for determining that the video posed a seizure risk. This time around, however, without even consulting Epilepsy Action (!), the same warning was placed at the beginning of the Paris video. According to TMZ this means, “Lesson learned,” and “’Ye and Jay save the day!” Epilepsy Action, however, pointed out that while it may be good to have a warning, it would be far better if the material did not place viewers at risk of possible seizures.
Epilepsy Action notes in a statement that, “despite the concerns raised last year about the All of the Lights video, Kanye West has knowingly made another video which could be harmful to some fans watching it. We would like to see the music industry show much more responsibility by not commissioning videos that contain potentially dangerous imagery.”
The statement continues with a reminder that photosensitive seizures, especially in young people, frequently occur in individuals who don’t even know they are photosensitive. Seizure warnings are therefore totally inadequate because people incorrectly assume that if they’ve never had a visually induced seizure, they aren’t at risk. In the UK, regulations for broadcast television already require that video sequences fall within seizure safety guidelines, and Epilepsy Action is now calling for those regulations to be extended to the Internet.
Hats off once again to Epilepsy Action, and to the awareness and proactive public safety measures taken by UK communications regulators. Is anyone listening in the US and elsewhere???
A huge amount of work is needed to protect consumers from the seizures triggered by flicker and flash from screens of everyday electronic media. But in 2011 there were some notable milestones in public awareness and prevention of photosensitive seizures. In no particular order, these are the year’s top five developments:
- A scene in the film Twilight Saga: Breaking Dawn triggered seizures in some audience members, most of whom had never experienced seizures before. Publicity about the seizures led to warnings by the UK’s Epilepsy Action and the Epilepsy Foundation of America. The film’s distributors provided a warning that cinemas could opt to provide to audiences. Although seizures triggered by movies shown in theaters aren’t common, this story brought wider attention to the risk of seizures from visual entertainment stimuli.
- Multinational game developer and distributor Ubisoft released a developers guide for creating video games that will not provoke visually induced seizures. Presumably it translates international guidelines for visual seizure safety into specific protocols for programmers. However, the guide is available only to member companies of TIGA, theUK’s trade association for video game developers and publishers.
- After the UK’s Epilepsy Action notified YouTube that an extended flashing segment in Kanye West’s music video “All of the Lights” could trigger seizures, a seizure warning was placed at the beginning of the video. It would be far better to fix than to keep the problem segments as is, even with a warning. Nobody pays attention to warnings, especially those who so far haven’t had a photosensitive seizure.
- Results of the first study to examine the rate of photosensitivity in young people on the autism spectrum were announced. They showed this population is at significantly increased risk of visually induced seizures. In young people 15 and older on the autism spectrum the photosensitivity rate is 25 percent. More studies are urgently needed, but with results as significant as these, more research will certainly be funded. While the study authors were focused more on commonalities in the roots of epilepsy and autism than on environmentally induced seizures in everyday life, the findings provide data that can be put to use immediately. The authors caution that it was too small a study (approximately 200 subjects) to merit placing limits on screen time. Nonetheless, parents of young people with autism spectrum disorders might want to be especially watchful of their children’s exposure to flashing electronic screens and any behaviors associated with screen time.
- Lenses that protect against visually induced seizures became readily commercially available. Zeiss F133 (previously known as Z1) cross-polarized, blue lenses can now be obtained from optician Antonio Bernabei, who ships worldwide from Rome. The lenses were developed by Zeiss with Italian photosensitivity researchers who demonstrated their effectiveness in clinical studies. In a study of people vulnerable to visually-induced seizures, while wearing the lenses 76 percent showed no abnormalities on EEG when tested with photic stimulation, and another 18 percent showed reduced EEG activation. Only 6 percent did not benefit at all. Until Bernabei began offering the lenses this past year, consumers and clinicians were unable to locate them without encountering a lot of dead ends.
These developments are more significant for the general public than most people realize because photosensitive seizures are not at all limited to individuals with epilepsy. Nobody knows for sure how many consumers experience visually induced seizures—including the small, unseen seizures that are never identified or reported. Three quarters of the affected people have no known history of seizures, no suspicion that they have this genetic vulnerability to flickering light, and therefore no prevention strategies.
Onward to more progress in 2012!
After 167 million viewings, Rebecca Black’s “Friday” music video has been pulled from YouTube because of a dispute over marketing rights. Alas, without access to the video, you can’t look for the flickering segment I wrote about in April that could cause seizures. Fortunately, I still have the video I downloaded for testing back then–when I found that it failed photosensitive seizure safety guidelines–so I can show you a still image of the segment where the problem is. The screen shot above was taken from that portion of the video, where images flash of Black, the names of the days of the week, and the song lyrics. Remember it now?
Yesterday was Thursday, Thursday
Today it is Friday, Friday
We, we, we so excited, we so excited
We gonna have a ball today
Tomorrow is Saturday
And Sunday comes afterwards…
In April I acknowledged that I hadn’t heard of anyone actually experiencing a seizure while watching the video. But since then, of all the keyword search topics that bring people to this blog, Rebecca Black’s video is #2 on the list.
I do want video games to be the focus in this blog, but I feel the need to comment on this Internet sensation. As of this morning there have been 72 million views on YouTube of 13-year-old Rebecca Black’s debut music video “Friday.” Lots of people have opinions about her voice, her age, her friends, the production values, and the song itself. I watched it from a different perspective, noticing that about two minutes into the video there’s a 20-second sequence of pretty rapid flashing. I had a hunch it could provoke seizures in people sensitive to flash and flicker.
So I ran the video through the Harding Flash and Pattern Analyzer, an analysis tool used regularly by the BBC and other broadcast networks in the UK and Japan to ensure their programs comply with internationally ratified image specifications for seizure safety. According to the Flash Pattern Analyzer’s assessment, the level of luminance flash during that segment is in the dangerous zone, capable of provoking seizures. So have there been any reports of people having seizures watching “Friday”? None that I know of. Probably most people have viewed it in the default YouTube small screen, which would make it much less likely to cause a problem. A primary reason why video games pose a bigger seizure threat is that the games are usually viewed up close, thus taking over most of the individual’s field of vision.
Kudos to the UK’s Epilepsy Action organization for drawing attention to the recently released music video from Kanye West, “All of the Lights,” which was causing seizures in people who viewed it on YouTube. Thanks to their efforts, the video is now preceded by a seizure warning. We need to initiate this sort of advocacy in the US as well. I encourage the epilepsy advocacy organizations here to become active in the effort to protect the public from seizure-provoking images.